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Apache: Article

An Introduction to Ant

Automate and improve your build and deploy process

Writing shell scripts to automate the build and deploy process for ColdFusion applications is not very much fun. The Jakarta Ant project is an open-source, cross-platform alternative that makes it easy to automate the build and deploy process.

But My Build and Deploy Process is Fine....
Maybe your build and deploy process for your latest application is fine - you type a single command and your build process automatically retrieves your application from the source control system, configures the application appropriately for the target environment, and copies all the necessary files to the production servers while you head to the coffee shop for your morning cup of caffeine and the newspaper. But I know that the reality for the vast majority of projects I've seen (including many of my own applications!) are built and deployed using a written multistep checklist - some steps automated by simple shell scripts and some done by hand. With time a scarce commodity on most projects, it's not a surprise that anything other than the ColdFusion application itself gets little, if any, attention.

But how many times have you personally been burned by a bad build or deploy? Maybe forgetting to copy a custom tag to the \CFusionMX\CustomTags directory? Or deploying the wrong version of a ColdFusion template? Maybe you forgot to toggle the data source name from the development server to the production server? Or neglected to disable some debugging code? The list goes on. How much time did you waste finding and fixing the problem? Odds are it was a lot, and that the problem happened at the least opportune time, like during a major production release! If there was a simple, free, cross-platform, extensible tool that would let you write automated build and deploy scripts, wouldn't it make sense to use it?

There are some traditional tools for automating builds: the venerable make is familiar to anyone who's done much work on Linux or with C applications; jam may be familiar to some hard-core open-source developers; and native shells on Windows (DOS and third-party replacements including cygwin) and Unix (bash, csh, zsh, and their relatives) can all be used. But anyone who has used make or its derivatives can relate to the frustrations of accidentally putting a space in front of a tab and trying to figure out why the script is not working. And shell scripts are both platform specific and can be very limited in their capabilities (particularly the DOS shell).

One Java programmer, James Duncan Davidson, became so frustrated with the existing build tools while he was creating Tomcat (the official reference implementation for Java Servlets and JavaServer Pages) that he wrote his own build tool, which he dubbed Another Neat Tool (Ant). The Ant tool itself is implemented in Java, which allows it to run consistently across most modern operating systems, and also makes it easy to extend so that it can do any tasks that Java can (more on that later). Ant-built scripts are written in XML, which makes them much easier to write (and validate!). Ant rapidly expanded into a number of Apache Jakarta projects and from there to the many Java developers who downloaded the Jakarta tools. Today, Ant is a de facto standard tool for automating many aspects of the Java software development process. Instead of the "make install" of the C world, Java developers now have "ant deploy"!

So why should you, as a ColdFusion developer, be interested in Ant? If your ColdFusion applications deploy seamlessly to Linux and Windows servers with a single command, then you might not need Ant, but otherwise it's going to become a key tool in your software development toolbox. More important, now that ColdFusion MX is so tightly coupled to the Java world, using Java tools simply makes sense. Even the ColdFusion MX updaters use Ant scripts for part of the upgrade process!

Installing Ant
The Apache Ant project home page provides both source and binary distributions of Ant, as well as the manual, links to key resources, and even a Wiki. For most purposes, the binary distribution for your platform should be sufficient, especially if you're new to Ant. The latest Ant release, 1.6.0, debuted in mid-December of 2003, though there's nothing wrong with Ant 1.5.x should that version already be available in your environment. And since Ant is a Java application, you'll also need an installed JDK, version 1.2 or later - the latest Sun JDK 1.4 is available from

Installing the Ant binaries is simply a matter of unzipping the archive into a directory on your computer and completing two configuration steps:

  1. The Ant\bin directory needs to be added to your path.
  2. Add the environment variable ANT_HOME, and have it point to the installation directory.

    There is also an additional, optional, step:

  3. Add the environment variable JAVA_HOME, which points to the installed JDK directory.

So on a Windows 2000/XP computer, the configuration might look like Listing 1. There are bash and csh equivalents for Unix in the Ant reference manual (

You can test your installation by opening a console window and typing

ant -version

which should produce a version number and compile date for your Ant installation.

Using Ant
Now that you've got Ant installed, what's the next step? Why, a build file of course! You're going to need a console window and your favorite text (or XML) editor to get started. The Ant command expects a buildfile (which defaults to build.xml) that contains an XML description of build targets, which are steps in the build process. And each target consists of one or more tasks that need to occur. Listing 2 contains a very simple buildfile. If you save Listing 2 as build.xml and simply type "ant", you'll get something that looks like this:

Buildfile: build.xml
[echo] usage: ant [target]
[echo] typical targets: init, dist, deploy, help
Total time: 4 seconds

It's worth noting that since we didn't pass in any particular target, Ant used the default target name defined in the <project> tag. Typing "ant help" will produce the same output. In this buildfile, we've got a single <target> that has two <echo> tasks. The <echo> task simply writes text to the screen.

Now that we've got the Ant equivalent of a "Hello World" application, let's get down to the business of creating the build process for a real ColdFusion application using Ant. To get started all we need to do is retrieve the source code from the source code control repository (I'm going to use Microsoft Visual SourceSafe for this example) and prepare it for deployment. I'm going to use the following Ant targets for our build process:

  1. init: Create the directories for the project
  2. getSource: Pull the latest source code from the repository
  3. build: Process the source code to prepare it for the deployment environment
  4. dist: Package the source for distribution/deployment
  5. deploy: Copy the distribution package to the production server
  6. clean: Remove all files and directories associated with the project

The entire buildfile is shown in Listing 3, and it's certainly expanded a lot!

Putting Our Buildfile Under the Magnifying Glass
There are a lot of new things to absorb in this buildfile and we have limited space, so we're going to look at each target individually in the following section and go over the major points. If you want details on any of the specific tasks (or any of the dozens of other Ant tasks) you might want to peruse the Ant online manual ( as you read along.

The init target shouldn't be too hard to interpret - it uses the <mkdir> task to create three directories: src, build, and dist. This task will create each of these three directories if they don't already exist. As an aside, these specific directory names have become conventional on Ant projects. Type "ant init" and the three directories will be created to hold your application. Since the <mkdir> in our buildfile is using relative paths, the directories will be created underneath the directory where the buildfile is located.

The clean target looks very similar to the init target, with the <delete> task replacing the <mkdir>. As you probably intuited, we're simply deleting the directories we created with the init. But one new feature is the depends attribute in the <target> tag. The depends attribute can be used to describe dependencies between targets. In this case, the buildfile is indicating that the clean target can run only after the init target has been run, so Ant automatically runs init for you, but only if the target needs to be run! You can test this by running the clean target two or more times - if the directories exist (and thus the init dependency is satisfied), the clean tasks simply deletes them, but if the directories do not exist, Ant runs the dependent init target to create them and then deletes them. Try it and watch the output!

The getsource target is where things really get interesting. We want to get the source code out of our Microsoft Visual SourceSafe (VSS) repository so we can build and deploy it. Ant has built-in tasks for manipulating all of the major (and many minor) source control applications. (As an aside, there are actually eight Ant tasks for manipulating VSS; these and all of the other vendor-specific tasks are listed in the "Optional Tasks" section of the Ant manual.) In this example, we're using <vssget> to pull code from the VSS. The buildfile is passing in a number of VSS-specific parameters which result in the latest source code being pulled from the repository and put into the \src directory. Note that this target also depends on the init target, since the \src directory needs to exist before we start getting the source code.

The build target is pretty simple in this buildfile - it uses the <copy> task to copy all of the files in the \src directory to the \build directory. The <copy> task is interesting because it uses an Ant type, the <fileset>. There are over a dozen Ant types, which represent complex data structures that Ant natively understands. In this case we're defining a set of files with the <fileset> type, which is then used by the <copy> task.

The build target depends on the getsource task, since we need source code before we can copy it to another directory, since getsource depends on init, we've now used the depends attribute to chain three targets together in the proper order, which you can verify by running the build target and watching the dependent tasks execute in the Ant output.

The dist target is exactly like the build target, simply copying files from one directory to another. If we were using Ant for a Java application, this is the step where the compiled class files would be packaged into a JAR file for distribution. So the net result of all of these steps so far is to pull out the source code from VSS, copy it to the \build directory, and then copy it to the \dist directory. We could have skipped the build and dist targets, but we'll talk more about why they're useful in the final section of this article.

Finally, we've got the deploy target, which in this case is copying the files in the \dist directory to another directory, perhaps a network share to the integration or production server. We're using the <mkdir> and <copy> tasks again, but this time the directory name looks a little weird. One powerful concept in Ant is the "property". In this example, the deploy target expects a property called "deploy.dir", which represents the directory the \dist directory should be deployed to. The syntax for a property is ${varname}. Properties can be configured a number of ways using the <property> task, ranging from assigning it directly in the buildfile to using environment variables or the command line. Let's assume for a minute that I can deploy the files to two directories, c:\apache2\htdocs\test for my local test Web server, and l:\apache2\htdocs\production for the production Web server. The property can be input from the command line using the -Dproperty=value syntax, like the following example

ant deploy -Ddeploy.dir=c:\\apache2\\htdocs\\test

Note that there is no space between the -D option and the property=value information. And since I'm running on a Windows machine, I do have to remember to escape the backslash just like I would have to in a Java .properties file. But the buildfile doesn't know anything about Windows, Linux, Mac, or anything else, so you can deploy to /var/httpd/htdocs/test just as easily.

Next Steps
The first step I'd recommend taking is to automate your build process using Ant if you don't already have a solution. Now. Right now. Go! And if you do have a build process in place, I'd suggest taking a hard look at whether it's worth moving to Ant for its simplicity (relatively speaking), extensibility, and cross-platform support. We've literally just scratched the surface of Ant, but this buildfile is already useful and a great starting point for experimentation (and maybe another article? Let me know!). Just some quick tidbits to whet your appetite for more Ant:

  • Use <filter>s to replace tokens in files with new values, maybe to toggle debugging flags and set datasource names that vary between deployment environments.
  • Schedule Ant using cron, at, Windows scheduler, or the like for nightly builds, and send e-mail to the team about the results.
  • Integrate automated testing tools (JUnit, HTTPUnit, etc) into the build.
  • Deploy using FTP, telnet, or other methods to a remote server.
  • Write your own Ant tasks that extend existing tasks or implement new functionality in Java (check out first to see if someone already beat you to it).

If you're looking for more on Ant, the Ant manual is a great resource, but I'd also heartily recommend the book, Java Development with Ant, by Erik Hatcher and Steve Loughran, especially if you're working with Java as well as ColdFusion (and in the interest of full disclosure, I should mention Erik was my officemate for nearly a year while he wrote the book). I hate to admit it, but since I started using Ant, I find creating a build process for new applications (gulp!) fun. Okay, maybe not fun, but at least much less frustrating than DOS scripts, make, and the manual lists I used to use. In fact, right now I'm headed off to have a cup of coffee since I just kicked off my release build... "ant deploy". Phew! Tough day. Probably enough time for a venti today...

More Stories By John Ashenfelter

John Paul Ashenfelter is CTO and founder of, a consulting firm based in central Virginia that specializes in developing and re-architecting ColdFusion Web applications for small- and mid-sized businesses. John Paul has been using ColdFusion since 1998 and is the author of three ColdFusion books as well as the upcoming Data Warehousing with MySQL.

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Most Recent Comments
Frengo 04/17/08 09:38:23 AM EDT

IMHO I have more much fun writing Ant Scripts than coding in Coldfusion, as with all other web scripting markup language :)

Gilbert 08/11/04 05:00:50 AM EDT

I have been trying to access the source code for the examples but I get an error message. Could you please post the example code again.

many thanks

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